Sunscreen is something that absorbs, repels, or reflects UV rays (Ultraviolet rays) to protect your skin from burning. Sunscreens main ingredient is para-amenobenzoic acid or PABA. PABA absorbs most of the UV rays but allows some to get through so it is considered more of a tanning lotion. Another ingredient that some sunscreens use is titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide repels the UV rays. The most effective sunscreens have these traits; it is opaque and contains inorganic substances. Individuals should put a lot of sunscreen on their ears and nose because those are the places that get the most sun exposure.

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Figure 1: This is showing how different types of sunscreens work.
What are sunburns?
A sunburn is when your cells are damaged from ultraviolet rays. The redness is caused by the increased blood flow to the dermis so that the cells will come together to repair the damage. When you pressed down on the burn, it turns white and when pressure is released, it turns red from the capillaries refilling.

What is a tan?
A tan is the body’s way of protecting itself from the UV rays. Malanocytes produces melanin. Melanin makes your skin darker which makes your skin less susceptible to getting a sunburn. If you get a tan, it is a sign that you have had too much sun exposure. 15 minutes a day of sun exposure helps the body produce vitamin D which strengthens teeth and bones.

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Figure 2: This is showing how malanocytes produce melanin which causes you to have tan.

What are the different types of UV rays?
UV rays stands for ultraviolet rays. UV rays are the rays that come from the sun. They help your body produce vitamin D, but can also lead to a sunburn. There are three different types of UV rays. UVB causes aging, wrinkling, and cancer. UVA causes tanning but through more thorough scientific research has been proved to cause the same problems as UVB. The last type of UV ray is UVC. UVC is filtered out by earth’s atmosphere.

Capillaries: a certain blood vessel that is the cause of the exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide
Dermis: the second layer of the skin
Malanocytes: the producer of melanin
Melanin: something that colors your skin to a tan color
Para-amenobenzoic acid: something that absorbs UV rays but allows some rays to get in
Titanium Dioxide: one of the whitest substances on earth
Ultraviolet: the radioactive rays produced by the sun that cause tanning, sunburns, aging, wrinkles, and cancer


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