What is pH?
By: Lindsay B.
Science- pH project
9 - 19- 11


What is pH and How is it Measured?
The term pH is a way of measuring how acidic or alkaline a substance is. What does it mean to be acidic or alkaline? A substance that is acidic is sour, and will turn litmus paper red. Something that is alkaline is also called a base, and is bitter, slimy and will tur
lindsay674_litmus_paper.jpg
In this picture litmus paper is turning red because this is an acid.
n litmus paper blue. And what is litmus paper? Litmus paper is a special type of paper found in a lab. How do you use litmus paper? Litmus paper can be dipped into a liquid to determine if it is an acid or an alkaline base. In this picture litmus paper is being used to show an acid, which is why the paper is turning red.










The pH Scale

The pH scale is a number line from 0 to 14 that tells how acidic or alkaline a substance is. Acids are measured from 0 to 7, with 0 being the most acidic and the darkest red on the litmus test. For bases the numbers are seven to fourteen, and fourteen is the most alkaline, the darkest blue. Neutral is shown as the number seven; seven is the only neutral number on the pH scale. In the diagram the pH values of different liquids are shown, with distilled water being the only neutral substance.
lindsayb674_science_ph_project.jpg
This is a diagam of the pH scale. It shows acids and bases and how they are mesured.



Acids and Bases and Why They Matter
Why is it important to know about acids and bases, and their pH values? Acids and bases are not only meaningful in science labs but they are also very important in our environment. One example of this is acid rain, which is rainwater that has become more acidic because of pollution. Acid rain can damage plants, as shown in the picture of two branches. The branch on the left has been damaged by acidic rainwater, and the branch on the right is healthy.
lindsay674_acids_and_bases.jpg
This is a piture of damage done to the leaf on the left after acid rain came though.



Glossary

pH: is a way of measuring how acidic or alkaline a substance is.

Acid: is sour, and will turn litmus paper red.

Base: is alkaline is also called a base, and is bitter, slimy and will turn litmus paper blue.

Litmus paper: is a special type of paper found in a lab and is used to determine if it is an acid or an alkaline base.




Citations
Clive Gifford Essential Chemistry. Saffron Hill. Usborne. 1992. Print.

Acid: litmus paper. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. <http://school.eb.com/comptons/art-87061.

Plant: effects of acid rain. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. <http://school.eb.com/comptons/art-109387>.