WHAT IS MAGNETISM?

Contributed by: Mason R.
Date of creation: 9/25/11
Magnetism is the invisible force between two forces that causes them to come together or are repelled from each other. Some objects that do this are metals like iron, nickel and cobalt.
POLES
Every magnet has 2 poles, a north and south pole. These places have the most powerful magnetic force. The poles are called this because when the magnet is suspended the magnet will line up in a north south direction. When the north pole of a magnet is placed near another north pole of another object than they will repel each other instead of attract each other when a north and south pole are placed near each other. The attraction and repelling of magnets depends on the power of the magnets and how close or far they are from each other. If you break a magnet into little pieces a North and South Pole will appear on the little pieces of magnet automatically. Each piece has a north and south pole whether the piece is as big a mountain or as small as a fingernail.
mpr_magnetism.jpg
Figure 1 these are magnets being sucked towards each other.

PARAMAGNETISM
So a paramagnetic object is an example of a magnet that will be attracted to a greater force of magnetic field. However the attraction is weak. Liquid, oxygen, and aluminum are examples of Paramagnetism.
Ferromagnetism
When a ferromagnetic object is placed near a magnet it will be attracted to an area of greater force like Paramagnetism. We are most used to this happening when a magnet picks up a bunch of paper clips. Iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinium, dysprosium, and alloys all have the elements to have the ability to align themselves because of the way an electron circles inside an atom. They will create a temporary magnet when they do this.
On the contrary…
Diamagnetism
When a diamagnetic object is placed near a magnet it will be repelled. People and frogs are strong examples of this. It is exhibited by all common materials but it very weak. Scientists experimented this when they placed a frog onto a very strong electromagnet and it levitated. Metals such as bismuth, copper, gold, silver and lead, as well as graphite, water and organic compounds.


Lodestones
In the ancient times men knew of a rock called lodestone. Lodestones were the first compasses fore ancient people. That is how the name lodestones was given to it. The origin of lodestone was Middle English before 900. It was also it old English and Old Norse. Lodestone could pull other pieces of rock towards itself. Now we use the same force to create power to store info on computers and many other things.
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Figure 2 here are some lodestones
Lodestones: A naturally magnetic piece of the mineral magnetite.
Paramagnetism: A weak form of magnetism in some elements and molecules.
Diamagnetism: When a diamagnetic object is placed near a magnet it will be repelled.
Ferromagnetism: Describing a strongly magnetic material.
Gadolinium: A lanthanide metal that only occurs in small quantities in the earth’s crust.
Dysprosium: A highly scarce material like gadolinium.
Alloy: Something consisting of two metals or a metal and a non-metal.
Nickel: a very hard and unreactive material.
Cobalt: a light grey transitional metal.
Citations
Harrison, Percy and Gillian Waites. The Cassel Dictionary of Science. London, England: Chatham, Kent, 1997, Print.
Hoadley, Rick. “What is magnetism” Magnet Man. Encyclopedia Britannica. Jun. 2 2011. Web. September 20, 2011.
Unknown. Magnetism. “Physics.” Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Web. September 20 2011
Cheek, Jerrie S. “electricity and magnetism.” Educational Technology Center-KSU, August 9, 2005. Web. September 20, 2011.