Dry Ice
By Coleman M.
Sublimation
Dry Ice is simply carbon-dioxide in its solid form. Dry Ice skips straight over the liquid stage, which is called the Melting Point. A melting point is the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. The liquid returns to the solid state at this same temperature. That is called Sublimation when a solid goes straight to a gaseous form. This is the boiling point.A boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas, and the gas becomes a liquid, usually at normal atmospheric pressure. Dry Ice is sublimating below.
coleM823_dry_ice.jpg
Dry ice is sublimating, turning from a solid straight to a gas

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_ice
"Dry ice." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 13 Sep. 2011. Web. 28 Sep. 2011.

Diagram(Dry_Ice).jpg
The solid dry ice block is heated which causes it to sublimate, turn into a gas



Uses of Dry Ice
Dry Ice is used as a refrigerant, especially during shipping of perishable products such as meats or ice cream.Dry ice can be used to flash freeze food laboratory biological samples, carbonate beverages, and make ice cream. It is occasionally used to freeze and remove warts.
Dry Ice Bomb
Dry ice is an ingredient in dry ice bombs. A dry ice bomb is a bomb-like device using dry ice and water-filled container, such as a plastic bottle. As the dry ice sublimates, pressure increases, usually causing the bottle to explode. A dry ice bomb is made from a container (typically a plastic bottle), water, and dry ice. The bottle is filled about quarter full of water, some dry ice is added, and the container shut tightly. As the solid carbon dioxide warms inside a bottle, it sublimates to a gas. The pressure inside the bottle increases as the quantity of gas increases with limited room to expand. Bombs will usually rupture within 30 seconds to 30 minutes, dependent largely on the temperature of the air outside the bottle. There is an example of a Dry Ice Bomb exploding in water below-
Dry_ice_bomb_colemanM823.jpg
A dry ice bomb is exploding in water
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dry_Ice_Bomb.jpg
Dangers of Dry Ice and the Dry Ice Bomb


The extreme cold makes the solid dangerous to handle without protection due to burns caused by freezing (frostbite). Prolonged exposure to dry ice can cause severe skin damage through frostbites premature explosion. Burst pressure can occur within seconds, injuring the handler. Also Dry ice is very cold: –78.5°C (-109.3°F) the explosion can carry shards of dry ice that had not sublimed.
The shock wave of the explosion is extremely loud and can cause hearing damage, and the blast of the explosion can propel fragments from the container extremely high-speeds and can give cuts and puncture wounds.Although dry ice is not classified as a dangerous substance by the European Union, or as a hazardous material by the DOT for ground transportation, when shipped by air or water, it is regulated as a dangerous good and IATA packing instruction 904 (IATA PI 904) requires that it be labeled specially, including a diamond-shaped black-and white label, UN 1845
Legality of the Dry Ice Bomb
Arizona prohibits dry ice bombs if there is intent to cause injury, death, or damage to the property of another, as well as their possession by "prohibited possessors" such as convicted felons and illegal immigrants. Also leaving an unexploded dry ice bombcan be

construed as public endangerment and can and will damage public or private property. And In Utah simple possession of a dry ice bomb and similar pressurized chemical reaction bombs is a second-degree felony. In Nebraska and in other areas the noise generated may violate local laws. California law defines "destructive device" as a type of weapon, including "any sealed device containing dry ice (CO2) or other chemically-reactive substances assembled for the purpose of causing an explosion by a chemical reaction."
Facts on Dry Ice
-Dry ice was first observed in 1834 by French chemist Charles Thorlier.
-Solid Dry Ice pellets Below.

Dry_ice_pellets_ColemanM823
These are solid dry ice pellets


http://school.eb.com./eb/art-117335.
-The Dry Ice bomb was featured on MythBusters, episode 57 Mentos and soda.
- Following the Mars flyby of the Mariner 4 spacecraft in 1966, scientists concluded that Mars' polar caps consist entirely of dry ice
- A phenomenon named dry ice storms was proposed to occur over the polar regions of Mars
- They are comparable to Earth's thunderstorms, with crystalline CO2 taking the place of water in the clouds.
Glossary-
Atmospheric-
Definition: Relating to, existing, or consisting of the atmosphere
Biological-
Definition: Relating to Biology.
Crystalline-
Definition-of or like crystal; clear; transparent.



Co2-
Definition- A heavy odorless colorless gas formed during inhalation and exhalation of air and by the decomposition of organic substances; absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis.
Perishable-
Definition- A thing to decay, ruin, or destruction.

Citations-
Databases-
"dry ice." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Web. 22 Sept. 2011.
<http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9031275>.

"ice cream." Compton's by Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Web. 22 Sept. 2011.
<http://school.eb.com/all/comptons/article-202331>.

Books-
-William H. Snyder
-The Extraordinary Chemistry of ordinary things
-Third Edition
-City of publication (New York)
-Publisher (John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

Web Sites-
Wikipedia contributors. "Dry ice." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 13 Sep. 2011. Web. 22 Sep. 2011.