Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
Leo T.
2011
The Atom
Atom_diagram_leot370.jpg
This is a diagram of an atom. The center of the atom is the nucleus. It has protons and neutrons. The electrons are revolving around the nucleus.

The atom is the basic building block of all matter. Atom is a term that means, “cannot be divided”. The name for the atom came about because the atom is the smallest matter. The atom is mostly empty space but the part of the atom that is not empty space is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. In the center of the atom is something called a nucleus. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. The protons are positively charged and the neutrons have no electrical charge giving the nucleus a positive electrical charge. The electrons have a negative charge giving the atom a balanced electrical charge.

Protons
Protons are one of the three parts that make up the atom. The number of protons determines what element the atom will make up. Hydrogen is the lightest element so the atom for hydrogen will have one proton. The number of protons in an atom will always equal the number of electrons because the atom needs to have an equal electrical charge since the proton has a positive charge.

Neutrons
The neutron has no electrical charge. Since the protons automatically repel themselves because they have a positive charge the neutron puts a neutralizing force on them. That is how the nucleus stays together.

Neutron_pic_leot370.jpg
These ar epictures of the proton and neutron. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are made up of quarks. The three dots in the proton and nuetron are the quarks.

Electrons
The electron has a negative charge. With the proton having a positive charge, the atom will have an equal electrical charge. The number of electrons also determines how much electrical charge it has. Since the number of protons equals the number of electrons, it will always have a balanced electrical charge. The electrons always move in clearly defined paths around the nucleus. The neutrons are the ones that keep the electrons together.

Nucleus
The nucleus is in the center of the atom and is made up of only protons and neutrons. The point of the nucleus is to keep the electrons together. The nucleus has a positive charge since the protons have a positive charge and the neutrons have no electrical charge. Lastly, the nucleus is what provides the weight of the atom.

The Elements
The elements are recorded on the periodic table of elements. The elements are what form everything. The atoms make up the elements. The number of protons in an atom determines what element the atom makes up. For example, hydrogen has one element because it is the lightest element. On the periodic table, the number above the element abbreviation is called the atomic number. The atomic number tells how many protons there are.


Periodic_Tble_of_Elements_leot370.gif
This is the Periodic Table of Elements. The atomic number tells how many protons are in the atom.


Glossary:
Atom: The most basic and smallest element of all matter
Protons: One of the three parts making up the atom with a positive electrical charge.
Neutrons: One of the three parts making up an atom with no electrical charge.
Electrons: One of the three parts making up an atom with a negative electrical charge
Nucleus: The center of the atom made up of protons and neutrons


Citations:
  • Gifford, Clive. Essential Chemistry. London. 1992. Print.
  • The Atomic Nucleus: Protons. Prod. Audio Visual Inc.. Aims Multimedia, 1996. Discovery Education. Web. 22 September 2011
  • Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons: The Building Blocks of All Matter . Prod. Michael Hardy Productions. Michael Hardy Productions, 1987. Discovery Education. Web. 22 September 2011.