What are protons, electrons and neutrons
Nick.M 2012


The Basics
So what are protons, neutrons, and electrons? Well let’s find out. All of these are located in atoms. In the middle of an atom is a nucleus. This nucleus houses the protons and neutrons. The electrons circle the nucleus from the magnetic force of the protons. That’s right magnetic force. The proton has a positive charge attracting the negatively charged electrons. Neutrons have no charge. Opposite charges attract to each other while the same type of charge repel each other. But let’s say a proton closely paired with an electron then a doublet forms and this has no charge but if a proton or electron was to pair with a neutron then based on what paired will give a new charge to the neutron meaning it turns in to a proton or electron. Free neutrons have a 50% chance of decaying in to a proton and electron. As a whole an atom has no charge because each atom has an equal amount of protons and electrons. The proton’s and electron’s charges cancel each other out leaving an atom with neutral charge.


Bohr Model:
An atom and the Solar system have similar structures. Just like planets revolve around the sun in orbits, electrons revolve around the nucleus. Protons in the nucleus act like the sun attracting the electrons and keeping them in orbit. This model was only able to show to simple atoms such as hydrogen. More complex atoms can be explained by the Quantum theory.
The model of an atom NM.jpg

Ernest Rutherford and Neils Bohr
Ernest Rutherford discovered the neutrons in the atoms. When he shot an electrical current though golden foil the current bounced strait back at him. Then he had the theory that there was something solid in the atoms. When he found it he called it the nucleus. Neils Bohr studied the nucleus and he found the neutron. He found some extra weight in the atom so he searched the nucleus and found the neutron.
Rutherford.jpg
Niels bohr.jpg
Figure 3 Neils Bohr



Glossary
Atom: A very small component that make up everything
Electrical current: A path of electricity
Electron: A negatively charged particle in an atom.
Neutron: A particle with no charge in an atom
Nucleus: A very small part of an atom that
Proton: A positively charged particle in an atom
Bohr Model: A method used for defining atoms

Citations
  1. 1. Greatest Discoveries with Bill Nye: Physics Science Channel, 2005. Full Video.
    Discovery Education. Web. 24 September 2012. <http://www.discoveryeducation.com/>.
  2. 2. MATTER Cooper, Chris New York Dorling Kindersley 1992
  3. 3. The Nature of Matter, Mcgraw-Hill companies 2002
  4. 4. "Rutherford, Ernest." Compton's by Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition.
    Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2012.
  5. 5. Structure of the Atom, New York University, Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nyu.edu.com/>