Extracts can be used for flavoring foods, adding fragrances and scents, etc. They are made through four different processes. Those are called expression, absorption, maceration, and distillation. Expression is used when there is a plentiful supply of the oil you are trying to extract and it isn’t hard to get to the oil. Absorption is when they pass an alcohol through the substance or they pass an alcohol-water mixture through. Maceration is used to create smaller pieces of a whole. Maceration is when the food is soaked in a liquid to soften it or to absorb some flavor from the liquid into the food. Distillation is used along with maceration but most of the time it requires an expert in this field and the chemical field. They all have the same main purpose, which is to extract the essential oils; however they are all different techniques for extracting things which are used for the extraction of different types of food and other plants.

Figure 1 Alcohol is being passed through the orange to extract the oils and make an orange extract

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Figure:2 Orange Extract

Mixtures are commonly used in the creation of extracts. For example when you are using absorption you run a mixture of alcohol through the substance you are dealing with. In a mixture each individual part can be separated from the others no matter what, but sometimes such as in the case of liquid mixtures special techniques and processes are required to separate the individual parts. If you can’t separate the different parts then chances are you are not dealing with a mixture.
A solution is a common type of mixture consisting of a solute (often a solid) mixed evenly with a solvent (usually liquid). What that means, is a solution which is a type of mixture, is made of a substance (usually solid), and another substance (usually liquid) for dissolving the solid.
Vanilla Extract
A vanilla extract is a solution which is made by macerating and filtering the vanilla beans in a solution or mixture of an alcohol or alcohol water mixture. In the United States there is even a rubric for it to be considered pure vanilla extract. I must be 35% alcohol and 13.35 oz. of vanilla bean per gallon.

Extract: The solution that results from passing alcohol or an alcohol-water mixture through a substance. Examples of extracts would be the alcohol water mixture of vanillin, orange, or lemon extracts found among the spices and flavorings of the supermarket shelf.
Solution: Solutions are a common type of mixture consisting of a solute (often a solid) mixed evenly with a solvent (usually liquid).
Mixture: A combination or something of made up of multiple things. (e.g. Chex Mix)

Green, Dan and Basher, Simon. “Mixtures.” Chemistry, Getting a Big Reaction. New York: Kingfisher, 2010. Print.
Wikipedia. “Extract.” Wikipedia. October 28, 2011. Web. September 27, 2012
Wikipedia. “Vanilla Extract.” Wikipedia. September 23, 2012. Web. September 27, 2012
Wikipedia. “Solutions.” Wikipedia. September 25, 2012. Web. September 27, 2012
Winter, Ruth. “Extraction.” A Consumer’s Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients. New, 3rd rev. ed. New York: Crown Publishers,1989. Print.
"vanilla." Compton's by Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012.